The British Rule and Development of Sindhi language

The British Rule The Sindhi language witnessed different stages of modern development after the British conquest  of Sindh  in  1843.  The  first  such development  was  the  invention  of  the  Sindhi Type-writer.  The first  such  old-styled  machine named  as  ‘Monarch’,  was  manufactured  way back  in  1926  by Remington,  an  American Company.  The  old  Sindhi  Type-writer, recovered  from  a  person  in Shahdadkot (Sindh)  is  preserved  in  the  museum  of  the Institute of Sindhology, Jamshoro (Sindh).  It  was  in  1973  that  a  modern  Sindhi Type-writer  named  as  ‘Al-Mustafa  Hermes Type writer’ was made with technical expertise of  Pillard,  a  firm  of  Switzerland,  and  with serious  efforts  of Sindh  University’s  Vice Chancellor  Syed  Ghulam  Mustafa  Shah  and renowned  Intellectual  Mr. Muhammad  Ibrahim Joyo.  This  modern  machine  was  improved further  through  a  new  model restructured  in 1994  (Abbasi:  1977:  6-12).  Such  a  scientific development  …

Medieval Era of Sindh

Medieval Era With the process of the decline of Indus Civilization started around 1650 B.C., the Indus Valley had lost its script (Panhwar: 1988). The Aryans  soon  evolved  Brahmi  script  from Hebrew  (or  the Indus  script?)  for  writing  of  Vedas.  This  gave  birth  to  Sanskrit  language about  1000  to  800 B.C.  In  its  aftermath,  a number  of  ancient  scripts  have  been discovered  from  various  sources indicating  to the  evolution  of  scripts  for  numerous vernaculars  of  South  Asia.  They  include Kharosthi  (300  B.C.),  Sui  Vihar  Script  (50 A.D.),  Gupta  Script  (4rth  Century  A.D.),  Old Nagra  Script  (9th  Century  A.D.),  Sanskrit Bhasha  (7-8  Century  A.D.),  Devanagri  (8th Century A.D.),  Ancient  Script  (Bhambhore), Sindhi Script (written by George Stack), SindhiArabic  Script (1020-1030  Hijra),  and  Khuwajki Script (1209-1290 A.D.), etc. During  the  period  of  Rai Dynasty  (6th Century A.D.) in Sindh, some letters written by Raja Dahar in t…


After the discovery of Harappa and Mohen jo daro, two principal cities of the great Indus Valley Civilization, in the early twenties, John Marshall conducted archaeological excavations at the site of Mohen jo daro in 1922. 
It was for the first time that a pictorial script of the 3rd millennium B.C. was found written on the seals, potshards and other archaeological objectfinds. The archaeologists and scholars attempted to decipher the script of the Indus Civilization soon after its discovery but found no match in the old records anywhere in the world to reach any conclusion. Finally, Asko Parpola and John Hunter conducted computerized studies to decipher it but in vain. However, many linguists and etymologists are still in pursuit of finding any clue to the genesis of the ancient script. However, most of the researchers believe, though hypothetically, that while striking cultural similarities do exist between the ancient and modern civilization of Sindh, the possibility …

Diachronic Development of SINDHI

Diachronic Development of SINDHI
Ancient Era  The petroglyphs of pre-history discovered from the bed of Seeta river in the mountainous range of Khirthar in Sindh (Pirzado: 2002) have opened up new windows through which can be seen the people of Sindh engaged, in the time immemorial, writing something on the rocky pages of some  prehistoric book.  
In the homes of the inhabitants of Mohen-jo-daro (2500-1500 B.C.) and in its crowded bazaars, the language spoken was most probably an ancient form of Sindhi, the available script of which is not deciphered so far. It however provides evidence to the effect that literature was also produced in that ancient (Sindhi) language. But no extensive excavations have so far been conducted at the World Heritage Site of Mohen-jo-daro, wherefrom the discovery of a library could be possible that could provide a sort of clue like the Rosetta-Stone, to give us a real key into decipherment of the Indus Script.   “Even the period of Proto-SINDHI or Primary Si…



With its roots in the Indus Civilization of the 3rd millennium B.C., the modern Sindhi language has attained a spectacular development to become the Computer language in the 3rd millennium A.D. This long journey of linguistic evolution and development began in the time immemorial, and continues up to this day. The secret of Sindhi being a developed language is its contact and coexistence with a galaxy of languages since centuries. In such a process, Sindhi has gained by taking loan words from other languages, and has also contributed to the other languages reciprocally. As a result of frequent migration of people, groups and nations to the green belt of the Indus Valley through the centuries, the morphological, phonological and syntactical structure of the Sindhi language has only flourished with the passage of time.

Sanskrit and Sindhi

Sanskrit and Sindhi The word ‘Prakrit’ is derived from ‘Pirkriti’, which has two shades of meaning (a) Nature (b) Original form. The antonym of word ‘Prikrit’ is ‘Vikrit’, which means ‘Distorted or Corrupted form’. The root of word ‘Sanskrit’ is ‘Kir’ or ‘Kar’, which means ‘to do’. Its past participle is ‘Krit’ which means ‘done’. ‘Sim’ is a prefix, which means ‘good’. The word ‘sam krit’ (Sanskrit) therefore means ‘fair’, ‘good’, ‘cleansed’, ‘polished’ or ‘refined’. Hence the actual meaning of Sanskrit language is ‘the polished or refined language’ (Bherumal: 1941: 24, 38). It is therefore that many scholars and linguists ask how it is possible that a natural or original language (Prakrit) can be derived from a polished or refined one (Sanskrit)? And, thus it is believed that Sanskrit is not the origin of Prakrit. On the contrary, Prakrit happens to be the origin of Sanskrit - the refined and polished language. With it, many philologists have started believing that Sanskrit is not the …

Historical Perspective of Sindh

In  the  late  18th  century,  the establishment  of  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal gave  impetus  to  the study  of  oriental languages.  Whereas  Persian  texts  usually  do not  go  beyond  11th  century,  the Sanskrit literature  had  great  antiquity,  especially  Vedic literature  that  belongs  to  1000-900  B.C. RigVeda,  the  earliest  of  all  was  considered  more than 5,000 years old, as per suggestion of the learned  Pandits  of  the  language.  Rig-Veda mentions god Indr, who was supposed to have subdued a local race having black skin and the later were reduced to slavery (Panhwar: 1988: 13).
This was used as an argument to claim that  at  that  time  the  whole  of  the  Indian subcontinent was occupied by Dravidians (the black people), who were driven away to South India  by  the  Aryans, some  5,500  years  back. Who  were  these  outsiders,  the  Aryans,  and where  they  came  from, was  an  obvious question. Max  Muller,  a  leading  authority  on Sanskirt  languag…