Sindhi in Cyberspace

Sindhi in Cyberspace

The dawn of 21st century saw Sindhi as a Computer language. Sindhi now is communicable on the Internet, thanks to the persistent efforts by Sindhi experts of Information Technology (IT) here in Sindh, and abroad. The evolution and development of Sindhi has a long history. Prior to 1866 when Ernest Trumpp published Shah-Jo-Risalo through Lithography from Liepzig, Germany, Sindhi was only a hand-written language. The Sindhi Type writer was invented in 1926, and for the first time a page of Sindhi words composed on computerized typesetting came out from a laser printer in 1987. By 2002, Sindhi became a language of computer and Internet.

Notes: Language Issue in former East Pakistan One-Unit Anti-One Unit struggle Sindhi Language Bill 1972 – Language riots -Turmoil Bhutto dethroned, executed on April 4, 1979 MRD movement of 1983 Carnage of 1988 (Sept 30, Oct 1) Water War – 1990-99 (drought and famine) Sindhi Language Authority – 1991

By the year 1983, a Line Editor was …

1947 Onwards and Sindh

1947 Onwards

The monolingual state of Sindh was over once again after a span of eleven years with the emergence of Pakistan in 1947. In the new state of Pakistan, Urdu was declared as the state language. Thus Sindh became a bilingual province with Sindhi and Urdu as the two languages of communication. With it, the focus on Sindhi, rested during 104 years of British Rule as the sole language of Sindh, was now shifted on Urdu as the national language of Pakistan and Sindhi as a regional language of the southernmost region (or province) of Pakistan. At the crucial juncture of taking final decision on the national or state language of the new state of Pakistan in the making, after the British had finally decided to quit India, there were different discussions in the air by the ruling elite and intellectuals. The Urdu speaking immigrants voiced their demands for Urdu to be implemented as the national language, arguing that Urdu had been the lingua franca during the freedom movement of Indi…

The British Rule and Development of Sindhi language

The British Rule The Sindhi language witnessed different stages of modern development after the British conquest  of Sindh  in  1843.  The  first  such development  was  the  invention  of  the  Sindhi Type-writer.  The first  such  old-styled  machine named  as  ‘Monarch’,  was  manufactured  way back  in  1926  by Remington,  an  American Company.  The  old  Sindhi  Type-writer, recovered  from  a  person  in Shahdadkot (Sindh)  is  preserved  in  the  museum  of  the Institute of Sindhology, Jamshoro (Sindh).  It  was  in  1973  that  a  modern  Sindhi Type-writer  named  as  ‘Al-Mustafa  Hermes Type writer’ was made with technical expertise of  Pillard,  a  firm  of  Switzerland,  and  with serious  efforts  of Sindh  University’s  Vice Chancellor  Syed  Ghulam  Mustafa  Shah  and renowned  Intellectual  Mr. Muhammad  Ibrahim Joyo.  This  modern  machine  was  improved further  through  a  new  model restructured  in 1994  (Abbasi:  1977:  6-12).  Such  a  scientific development  …

Medieval Era of Sindh

Medieval Era With the process of the decline of Indus Civilization started around 1650 B.C., the Indus Valley had lost its script (Panhwar: 1988). The Aryans  soon  evolved  Brahmi  script  from Hebrew  (or  the Indus  script?)  for  writing  of  Vedas.  This  gave  birth  to  Sanskrit  language about  1000  to  800 B.C.  In  its  aftermath,  a number  of  ancient  scripts  have  been discovered  from  various  sources indicating  to the  evolution  of  scripts  for  numerous vernaculars  of  South  Asia.  They  include Kharosthi  (300  B.C.),  Sui  Vihar  Script  (50 A.D.),  Gupta  Script  (4rth  Century  A.D.),  Old Nagra  Script  (9th  Century  A.D.),  Sanskrit Bhasha  (7-8  Century  A.D.),  Devanagri  (8th Century A.D.),  Ancient  Script  (Bhambhore), Sindhi Script (written by George Stack), SindhiArabic  Script (1020-1030  Hijra),  and  Khuwajki Script (1209-1290 A.D.), etc. During  the  period  of  Rai Dynasty  (6th Century A.D.) in Sindh, some letters written by Raja Dahar in t…


After the discovery of Harappa and Mohen jo daro, two principal cities of the great Indus Valley Civilization, in the early twenties, John Marshall conducted archaeological excavations at the site of Mohen jo daro in 1922. 
It was for the first time that a pictorial script of the 3rd millennium B.C. was found written on the seals, potshards and other archaeological objectfinds. The archaeologists and scholars attempted to decipher the script of the Indus Civilization soon after its discovery but found no match in the old records anywhere in the world to reach any conclusion. Finally, Asko Parpola and John Hunter conducted computerized studies to decipher it but in vain. However, many linguists and etymologists are still in pursuit of finding any clue to the genesis of the ancient script. However, most of the researchers believe, though hypothetically, that while striking cultural similarities do exist between the ancient and modern civilization of Sindh, the possibility …

Diachronic Development of SINDHI

Diachronic Development of SINDHI
Ancient Era  The petroglyphs of pre-history discovered from the bed of Seeta river in the mountainous range of Khirthar in Sindh (Pirzado: 2002) have opened up new windows through which can be seen the people of Sindh engaged, in the time immemorial, writing something on the rocky pages of some  prehistoric book.  
In the homes of the inhabitants of Mohen-jo-daro (2500-1500 B.C.) and in its crowded bazaars, the language spoken was most probably an ancient form of Sindhi, the available script of which is not deciphered so far. It however provides evidence to the effect that literature was also produced in that ancient (Sindhi) language. But no extensive excavations have so far been conducted at the World Heritage Site of Mohen-jo-daro, wherefrom the discovery of a library could be possible that could provide a sort of clue like the Rosetta-Stone, to give us a real key into decipherment of the Indus Script.   “Even the period of Proto-SINDHI or Primary Si…



With its roots in the Indus Civilization of the 3rd millennium B.C., the modern Sindhi language has attained a spectacular development to become the Computer language in the 3rd millennium A.D. This long journey of linguistic evolution and development began in the time immemorial, and continues up to this day. The secret of Sindhi being a developed language is its contact and coexistence with a galaxy of languages since centuries. In such a process, Sindhi has gained by taking loan words from other languages, and has also contributed to the other languages reciprocally. As a result of frequent migration of people, groups and nations to the green belt of the Indus Valley through the centuries, the morphological, phonological and syntactical structure of the Sindhi language has only flourished with the passage of time.